How you feed your dog is important for overall health including weight management, and digestion, as well as for training purposes. This article is meant to give some ideas on different ways to feed your dogs, and some general tips. It is not meant to be a discussion on type of diet – that’s a whole other ball of wax!

Schedule
Once, twice, or three times a day?
In general, most adult dogs are fine with one or two meals a day. Puppies should be fed more frequently, typically three times a day. Your veterinarian can help you decide how often and how much to feed your puppy based on the puppy’s age, breed, and expected size at full maturity. Geriatric dogs who may need supplemental meals to maintain good body weight might also be fed three times a day. Dogs taking special medications may also need to be fed smaller, more frequent meals.

At our house, we feed two meals per day but we don’t have a strict time schedule for feeding. Some owners report that their dogs get “upset if dinner is late” – i.e. the meals have been so rigidly timed that their dogs expect food at certain times. Our dogs don’t tell us when it’s time to eat. We feed meals based on our schedule – which isn’t the same day to day. We tend to feed within two ranges of time – anywhere between 6 and 8 a.m., and again between 5 and 8 p.m. I don’t know if it’s a hunch, but I think this prevents dogs from clock watching. 🙂 I also may withhold a dog’s meal if he/she is going to be involved in training that day whether in a class environment or on a walk; this allows me to use food for training without overfeeding my dog.

Measuring
Whether you feed a dry kibble food, wet canned food, or a raw diet, it’s a good idea to measure portions, especially if you are just switching to a scheduled feeding routine. Measuring can help you determine a baseline amount to start with, so that if you notice your dog is getting too heavy or too thin, you can scale back the amount or add accordingly. Also, keep in mind that dog food companies are in the business of selling dog food, so the recommended feeding amounts on the package may or may not be appropriate for your dog. I do not feed based on package recommendations; I go by how my dog looks and feels to me and I make adjustments as needed.

Nutritional Needs
Your dog’s nutritional needs are as individual as your dog’s personality! How much food, what type of food, how often you should feed, are all dependent upon your dog’s age, his activity level, overall health, and individual metabolism. For example, you might find that in the spring and summer when your dog is probably getting more activity as the weather permits, that he may need to eat a bit more to maintain good body weight.

Free feeding or schedule feeding?
I surveyed about 40 dog owners and asked if they free fed or schedule fed, and why they chose one method over another. In addition, I asked the owners if they had a one-dog, or multiple-dog household. The majority of owners schedule fed their dogs, in fact, all but one owner used schedule feeding, and even that owner had switched to schedule feeding and had a very specific reason why she previously free fed one of her dogs. This owner had a dog who had an illness when he was young, and due to the illness, the dog was underweight. In order to promote weight gain, she free fed him but noted he was an only dog at the time. When she added a second dog to her home, she switched to schedule feeding. I realize this is a small population sample size, but in asking this question, I was given many potential benefits seen by the owners who schedule-fed which I’ve tried to summarize below.

Benefits to Schedule Feeding
There are many benefits to feeding your dog(s) on a schedule. These benefits are not listed in any particular order of importance.

  • Scheduled input means scheduled output. To put it simply, if your dog eats on a regular schedule, he should eliminate on a regular schedule. This is a great benefit for dog owners in terms of regulating when your dog has to go potty, but it is especially important for puppy owners who are trying to house train their pups!
  • Schedule feeders report that they know the minute a dog’s appetite is ‘off’ and this is important as lack of appetite can be one of the first signs of illness in your pet.
  • Schedule feeding helps prevent conflicts over resources in a multi-dog household. Some owners report that separating their dogs by way of crates or use of baby gates during meal times can also help minimize the potential for conflicts over food.
  • Scheduled feeding makes it easier to administer timed medications for dogs who need them.
  • Scheduled feeding makes it easier to control a dog’s weight because the owner knows exactly how much food is being eaten and can make adjustments as needed.
  • Food quality is ‘fresher’ since it is does not sit out all day in a bowl.
  • Dogs who are schedule fed are more likely to work for food when food/treats are offered as part of a training program whereas dogs who are free fed typically will not work as hard or at all for food when it is used as a reward for training. It’s almost as if the dog thinks, “Well why should I work for that piece of food, when food is available to me all the time?” In my teaching experience as a trainer, I have often found that dogs who are not food motivated are frequently free-fed. This can be quickly remedied by switching to scheduled meals.
  • A meal can be administered as part of training sessions throughout the day, or even fed in a puzzle toy such as a Kong, Tug-a-Jug, or Mazee Ball.
  • Schedule feeding allows you to practice some important obedience cues or behaviors such as “wait” and release cues at meal times.

Free Feeding Benefits
In general, I do not recommend free feeding especially if you need to create value for food.  However, some clients I have had over the years who free fed their dogs indicated the following reasons for using a free feeding system wherein food is left out for the dog to graze on throughout the day:

  • Convenience for owner; some owners report that they work long days and feel badly about making a dog wait to eat so free feeding ensures that the dog doesn’t miss a meal.
  • May be helpful for the dog who needs to eat more frequently due to a health condition or for a dog who is a picky eater, or anxious eater.

Hand feeding
I am a big proponent of hand feeding some meals, especially with a young puppy or newly acquired adult dog. Hand feeding all, or a portion, of a meal is a great bonding activity with your dog. It is a quick and easy way to establish a relationship with a dog. It also allows you to teach the dog how to use a ‘soft mouth’ to accept food that is offered to him. I also like to use hand feeding to slow down a fast eater and to teach and reinforce some basic behaviors such as impulse control. If you haven’t hand-fed your dog before, try it! Take a bowl of food and sit with your dog. Feed a few pieces of food at a time. If your dog is too excited, jumps, barks at, or mouths you, just wait for some calm behavior that you can then reinforce with a few pieces of food. It need not be a directed activity; you don’t have to cue your dog to do anything specific like sit or down, just wait for calm behavior and four feet on the floor, and then feed. Your dog will start to understand that calm, patient behavior on his part earns the reward.

Enrichment toys
Another alternative to bowl feeding and hand feeding is feeding meals from a food-dispensing/puzzle toy. I use these intermittently for my dogs’ meals. Examples of food puzzle toys are Kongs, Kong Wobbler, Premier’s Tug-a-Jug, Linkables, and Planet Dog’s Mazee Ball to name a few. There are even more advanced puzzle toys such as those by the Nina Ottoson company. These are great for numerous reasons! Puzzle toys encourage your dog to think and problem solve. They can also be beneficial for slowing down consumption rate for dogs who eat too fast. I like to use food-dispensing puzzle toys for opportune training times. For example, if I have a puppy who is learning to be a little more independent in the home, I might gate the puppy in a safe, puppy-proofed zone such as the kitchen and give him a meal in a puzzle toy while I do some errands elsewhere within the house. By doing this, the pup is getting some alone time without being crated but has something to occupy him so he doesn’t engage in destructive chewing. I also like to use enrichment toys such as stuffed Kongs to occupy dogs while house guests come over. My dogs love eating their meals from Kongs and doing so can keep them busy for awhile in their crates, while I entertain dinner guests.

Give it a try!
Hopefully this article has given you some ‘food for thought!’ and you can experiment with some different ways to feed your dog. I have found that for my own personal dogs, they enjoy some variety to their feeding routine; sometimes I hand feed, sometimes I feed during training, sometimes from a bowl, and other times I feed from a puzzle toy. I think this keeps things interesting for your dog!

c2014 Andrea Kilkenny/Our Gang Pet Services, LLC

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A boiler is a closed vessel where water or other liquid is heated. The fluid will not boil. (In North America, the term “furnace” is normally used if the reason is not to boil the fluid.) The warmed or vaporized liquid exits the boiler for use in a variety of processes or heating system applications,[1 – [2 – including water heating, central heating, boiler-based power generation, cooking, and sanitation.

Materials
The pressure vessel of the boiler is usually manufactured from steel (or alloy steel), or of wrought iron historically. Stainless steel, especially of the austenitic types, is not used in wetted parts of boilers due to stress and corrosion corrosion cracking.[3 – However, ferritic stainless is often found in superheater sections that will not be exposed to boiling water, and electrically heated stainless shell boilers are allowed under the European “Pressure Equipment Directive” for production of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4 –
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In live steam models, copper or brass is often used because it is more fabricated in smaller size boilers easily. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for vapor locomotives), because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in newer times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as metal) are used instead.

For a lot of the Victorian “age of steam”, the only material used for boilermaking was the highest grade of wrought iron, with assembly by rivetting. This iron was often extracted from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), noted for the high quality of their rolled plate and its own suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice transferred towards the use of metal instead, which is more powerful and cheaper, with welded building, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be noted, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode considerably slower than their modern-day metal counterparts, and are less susceptible to localized stress-corrosion and pitting. This makes the durability of older wrought-iron boilers much more advanced than those of welded steel boilers.

Cast iron may be used for the heating system vessel of domestic water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed “boilers” in some countries, their purpose will be to produce warm water, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and stay away from boiling. The brittleness of cast iron helps it be impractical for high-pressure vapor boilers.
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Energy
The source of heat for a boiler is combustion of some of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or natural gas. Electric vapor boilers use resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for producing steam, either directly (BWR) or, in most cases, in specialised heat exchangers called “steam generators” (PWR). High temperature recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other procedures such as gas turbine.

Boiler efficiency
there are two solutions to gauge the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method

Direct method -immediate method of boiler efficiency test is more usable or even more common

boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total vapor circulation Hg= Enthalpy of saturated steam in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of give food to drinking water in kcal/kg q= level of fuel use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like family pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)

indirect method -to gauge the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we need a following parameter like

Ultimate analysis of gas (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
flue gas temperature at outlet
ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
GCV of gasoline in kcal/kg
ash percentage in combustible fuel
GCV of ash in kcal/kg
Configurations
Boilers can be classified in to the following configurations:

Pot boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive “kettle” where a fire heats a partially filled water box from below. 18th century Haycock boilers produced and stored large amounts of very low-pressure vapor generally, often barely above that of the atmosphere. These could burn off wood or most often, coal. Efficiency was suprisingly low.
Flued boiler with one or two large flues-an early type or forerunner of fire-tube boiler.

Diagram of a fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a little volume still left above to support the vapor (vapor space). This is the type of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives. The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be held permanently surrounded by water in order to keep the heat of the heating surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the road of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating system surface which may be further increased by causing the gases reverse direction through a second parallel tube or a lot of money of multiple tubes (two-pass or come back flue boiler); additionally the gases may be studied along the edges and then under the boiler through flues (3-move boiler). In case there is a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and the hot gases go through a bundle of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly escalates the heating surface in comparison to a single tube and further enhances heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers usually have a comparatively low rate of steam creation, but high vapor storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers burn solid fuels mostly, but are readily versatile to people of the liquid or gas variety.

Diagram of a water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this kind, pipes filled with drinking water are arranged inside a furnace in a genuine variety of possible configurations. Water pipes connect large drums Often, the low ones containing water and the upper ones water and steam; in other instances, like a mono-tube boiler, drinking water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This type provides high steam production rates generally, but less storage space capacity than the above. Water pipe boilers can be designed to exploit any heat source and tend to be preferred in high-pressure applications because the high-pressure water/steam is contained within small size pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized kind of water-tube boiler where pipes are close collectively and water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the kind of mono-tube steam generator where the tube is permanently filled with water. In a flash boiler, the pipe is held so hot that water give food to is quickly flashed into vapor and superheated. Flash boilers got some use in automobiles in the 19th century and this use continued in to the early 20th century. .

1950s design vapor locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes both above types have been combined in the next manner: the firebox contains an set up of water pipes, called thermic siphons. The gases pass through a conventional firetube boiler then. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed – but have met with little success in other countries.
Sectional boiler. In a solid iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a “pork chop boiler” the water is contained inside solid iron sections.[citation needed – These areas are assembled on site to create the finished boiler.
Safety
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations like the American Culture of Mechanical Technical engineers (ASME) develop requirements and regulation codes. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a typical providing an array of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with protection, security and design standards.[5 –

Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction as a consequence to poorly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metallic shells can rupture, while welded or riveted seams could start badly, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized vapor. When drinking water is converted to vapor it expands to over 1,000 times its original volume and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres each hour. Because of this, vapor is a superb way of moving energy and temperature around a niche site from a central boiler house to where it is necessary, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising herb are affected from scale formation and corrosion. At best, this increases energy costs and can lead to poor quality vapor, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation. At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failure and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler pipes can also aerosol scalding-hot steam and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who fill the coal into the open fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing a huge selection of horsepower to use factories can potentially demolish entire buildings.[6 –

A boiler that has a loss of give food to water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous. If feed drinking water is sent in to the clear boiler then, the tiny cascade of inbound water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metallic shell and leads to a violent explosion that can’t be managed even by basic safety steam valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the vapor supply lines that is bigger than the make-up water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a strategy to assist in preventing this problem from occurring, and thereby reduce their insurance statements.[7 – [8 –

Superheated steam boiler

A superheated boiler on a steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce vapor to be utilized at saturation heat; that is, saturated vapor. Superheated vapor boilers vaporize the water and then further temperature the steam in a superheater. This provides steam at higher heat range, but can reduce the overall thermal efficiency of the vapor generating place because the higher vapor temperature requires a higher flue gas exhaust temperature.[citation needed – There are many ways to circumvent this issue, typically by giving an economizer that heats the feed drinking water, a combustion air heating unit in the hot flue gas exhaust path, or both. You will find benefits to superheated vapor that may, and often will, increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its utilization: benefits in input temperatures to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler complication and expense. There may be practical limitations in using moist steam also, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.

Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any operational system component fails and allows steam to flee, the ruthless and temperature can cause serious, instantaneous injury to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will at first be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak obviously indicates its presence.

Superheater operation is similar to that of the coils on an air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The vapor piping is directed through the flue gas route in the boiler furnace. The heat range in this area is between 1 typically,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb high temperature by rays. Others are convection type, absorbing temperature from a fluid. Some are a mixture of both types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas path will heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within also. While the temp of the steam in the superheater increases, the pressure of the vapor will not and the pressure remains the same as that of the boiler.[9 – Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to avoid harm to the turbine blading and associated piping.

Supercritical steam generator

Boiler for a power place.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are generally used for the production of electric power. They operate at supercritical pressure. In contrast to a “subcritical boiler”, a supercritical vapor generator operates at such a higher pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases that occurs; the fluid is liquid nor gas but a super-critical fluid neither. There is absolutely no era of steam bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point at which steam bubbles can form. As the liquid expands through the turbine phases, its thermodynamic state drops below the critical point as it does work turning the turbine which turns the power generator from which power is ultimately extracted. The liquid at that point may be a mixture of steam and liquid droplets as it goes by into the condenser. This leads to somewhat less fuel use and for that reason less greenhouse gas production. The term “boiler” shouldn’t be used for a supercritical pressure vapor generator, as no “boiling” occurs in this device.
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Accessories
Boiler accessories and fittings
Pressuretrols to regulate the vapor pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have two or three 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a security by setting the top limit of steam pressure, the working pressuretrol, which handles when the boiler fires to maintain pressure, as well as for boilers outfitted with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which handles the amount of fire.
Safety valve: It can be used to alleviate pressure and stop possible explosion of a boiler.
Water level indications: They show the operator the level of fluid in the boiler, also known as a view glass, water gauge or water column.
Bottom level blowdown valves: They offer a means for removing solid particulates that condense and rest on the bottom of the boiler. As the name suggests, this valve is usually located on underneath of the boiler, and is sometimes opened up to use the pressure in the boiler to push these particulates out.
Continuous blowdown valve: This allows a small level of water to escape continuously. Its purpose is to avoid water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be carried over with the vapor – an ailment known as priming. Blowdown is often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler drinking water also.
Trycock: a type of valve that is often use to manually check a liquid level in a container. Mostly entirely on a drinking water boiler.
Flash tank: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where in fact the vapor can ‘flash’ safely and be found in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere while the ambient pressure blowdown moves to drain.
Automatic blowdown/continuous heat recovery system: This technique allows the boiler to blowdown only when makeup water is moving to the boiler, thereby transferring the utmost amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the makeup water. No flash tank is generally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the temp of the makeup water.
Hand holes: These are metal plates installed in openings in “header” to permit for inspections & installing pipes and inspection of internal surfaces.
Vapor drum internals, a series of screen, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It really is a mechanical means (usually a float change) that is utilized to turn off the burner or shut down fuel to the boiler to prevent it from jogging once the drinking water goes below a certain point. If a boiler is “dry-fired” (burnt without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failing.
Surface blowdown collection: It offers a way for removing foam or other light-weight non-condensible substances that tend to float on top of water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It really is made to circulate water back again to the boiler after it has expelled some of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater series. This may be suited to the comparative side of the boiler, below water level just, or to the very best of the boiler.[10 –
Top feed: Within this design for feedwater injection, water is fed to the top of the boiler. This may reduce boiler exhaustion triggered by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over some trays the water is quickly heated which can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater tubes or bundles: Some pipes or bundles of pipes in water drum or the steam drum designed to cool superheated vapor, in order to supply auxiliary equipment that will not need, or may be damaged by, dry out vapor.
Chemical substance injection line: A link with add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Steam accessories
Main vapor stop valve:
Steam traps:
Main vapor stop/check valve: It can be used on multiple boiler installations.
Combustion accessories
Energy oil system:fuel oil heaters
Gas system:
Coal system:
Soot blower
Other essential items
Pressure gauges:
Feed pumps:
Fusible plug:
Inspectors test pressure measure attachment:
Name plate:
Registration dish:

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«Всё или ничего» – инвестор пытается угадать, возрастёт ли цена актива или же будет падать, соответственно, делая ставку на то или другое.

В случае неудачи человек может потерять всё, но некоторые брокеры возвращают до 15% инвестируемой в опцион суммы;

«60 секунд» – опцион играет не более минуты, поэтому многим так нравятся эти быстрые деньги. Стоит знать, что во время выхода финансовых новостей многие брокеры блокируют покупку данных контрактов

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